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Jesuits and Parish Ministry 

Peter D. Byrne, S J. 

29/3 • MAY 1997 


A group of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the United States. 

The Seminar studies topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and 
practice of Jesuits, especially American Jesuits, and communicates the results to 
the members of the provinces. This is done in the spirit of Vatican II's recom- 
mendation that religious institutes recapture the original inspiration of their 
founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. The Seminar wel- 
comes reactions or comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the 
Jesuits of the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits 
of other regions, to other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. 
Hence, the studies, while meant especially for American Jesuits, are not exclu- 
sively for them. Others who may find them helpful are cordially welcome to 
read them. 


Peter D. Byrne, S.J., is presently engaged in a sabbatical program after serving as 
rector and president of St. Michael's Institute in Spokane, Wash. (1994). 

Francis X. Clooney, S.J., teaches comparative theology at Boston College, 
Chestnut Hill, Mass. (1994). 

Ernest C. Ferlita, S.J., teaches theater at Loyola University, New Orleans, La. 

Gerald P. Fogarty, S.J., teaches history in the department of religious studies at 
the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. (1995). 

M. Dennis Hamm, S.J., teaches Scripture at Creighton University, Omaha, Neb. 

John P. Langan, S.J., is visiting professor of philosophy at Loyola University, 
Chicago, 111. (1996). 

John W. Padberg, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar, editor of STUDIES, and direc- 
tor and editor at the Institute of Jesuit Sources (1986). 

Clement J. Petrik, S.J., is assistant to the provincial of the Maryland Province 
for pastoral ministries (1995). 

Carl F. Starkloff, S.J., teaches theology at Regis College, Toronto, Canada 

James S. Torrens, S.J., is an associate editor oi America in New York (1996). 

The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. Parenthe- 
ses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 1997 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 
3700 West Pine Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108 
(Tel. 314-977-7257; Fax 314-977-7263) 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry 

Peter D. Byrne, S.J. 


29/3 ■ MAY 1997 


For your information . . . 

Is there a "Jesuit culture"? By "culture" I mean a pattern or patterns of 
norms, values, practice, beliefs, and assumptions that shape the behavior of Jesuits as 
individuals and of the Society of Jesus as a group, and that provide a frame of 
reference for interpreting the meaning of events and actions that occur within the 
Society or that impinge upon it from the outside. 

Several recent articles prompt the question. The first article appeared as 
reflections by Myron Pereira, S.J., editor of Jivan, the ever thoughtful and provoca- 
tive journal of the South Asian Assistancy. The second is by Andrew Hamilton, S.J., 
who teaches at the United Faculty of Theology in Melbourne, Australia. That article 
appears in the Review of Ignatian Spirituality, the new journal edited in Rome by 
Joseph Tetlow, S.J., which at the same time continues in a different form the work 
of CIS, the Center for Ignatian Spirituality, established by Father Arrupe at the end 
of Vatican 11 and the Thirty-first General Congregation. I commend both articles, "Is 
There Such a Thing as Jesuit Culture.-*" in Jivan for October-November, 1996, and 
"Our Way of Proceeding," in Review of Ignatian Spirituality 7, no. 84 (Jan. 1997). 
The latter article, in its description of Jesuit spirituality, brought three requested 
responses, one from Sister Elizabeth Mary Strub, the former superior general of the 
Society of the Holy Child Jesus; another from Father Damian Sassin, S.J., who 
worked among the marginalized in the Philippines and is now the mission procurator 
of his German province; and the third from Dr. Marie R. Joyce, a clinical psycholo- 
gist at the School of Social Sciences at the Australian Catholic University. 

The Review of Ignatian Spirituality offers an international forum on the 
spirituality rooted in the Spiritual Exercises; it directs its articles primarily to 
members of the Society, to members of other Ignatian congregations and of Christian 
Life Communities, and to lay men and women of the Ignatian apostolic network. 
This journal appears in English, Spanish, and French three times a year and is 
published by the secretariat for Ignatian Spirituality at the Jesuit Curia in Rome. It is 
more than worth the yearly subscription price of $23.00. The first issue has two 
articles by United States authors, and one each from Brazil, Guatemala, and Austra- 

The May-June meeting of the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality is always 
somewhat bittersweet. It is the last meeting for those members who are completing 
their three-year terms on the seminar, and it is the time at which we announce the 
names of the new members who will become part of the seminar in the fall. This 
year four men leave the Seminar: Peter Byrne, whose essay appears in this issue of 
STUDIES; Frank Clooney and Dennis Hamm, whose essays appeared in earUer issues; 


and Ernest Ferlita, whose study on the uses of the imagination and the Spiritual 
Exercises will constitute a future issue. I am sure I express the thanks of all our 
readers for the contributions these men have made to STUDIES: the members of the 
seminar will surely miss their presence and participation at our meetings. The new 
members are Richard Clifford (NEN), Gerald Fagin (NOR), Edward Oakes (MIS) and 
Timothy Toohig (NEN). I shall tell you more about them in the September issue of 


John W. Padberg, SJ. 



Introduction 1 

I. The Service of Faith 3 

The Service of Faith through a Sacramental Community 3 

The Service of Faith through the Ministry of the Word 4 

The Service of Faith and Formation of Lay Ministry 5 

n. The Promotion of Justice 7 

The Promotion of Justice at St. Leo's 8 

The Promotion of Justice and the Example of St. Joseph's 10 

IIL Solidarity with the Poor 12 

Solidarity with the Poor in Two Poor Parishes 12 

Freddy and Greg 13 

Michael 14 

IV. Preparation for and Skills Needed for Ministry 

in a Jesuit Parish 17 

Specific Skills for a Pastor 17 
Homiletics/Liturgy, 18 
Socio-Cultural Analysis, 19 
Conflict Management and Leadership, 20 

V. Two Concluding Questions 21 

What Distinguishes a Jesuit Parish? 21 

Place, 21 

The Spiritual Exercises and the Practice of Discernment, 22 

Jesuit Companions, 23 

An Apostolic Network, 24 

Should the Society Have Parishes as a Ministry? 24 

SOURCES: Documents regarding parish ministry 26 


Jesuits and Parish Ministry 


You do parish work? I thought you were a Jesuit." This reaction 
frequently surfaces when Jesuits mention that they minister in a 
Jesuit parish. In the public mind and imagination, so identified are 
Jesuits with education that people are often surprised to learn that parish 
ministry is a key work of the Society of Jesus. Many Jesuits wonder to 
themselves why we are in this ministry, unaware of how dramatically it has 
changed in the last twenty-five years, how complex it has become, and how 
much preparation and training the pastoral ministry now requires. Ignatius 
himself did not want parishes to be a Jesuit work. In his time a pastorate 
entailed a lifelong commitment, which would have severely inhibited 
availability for other ministries and missions. Also, caring for a parish was 
equivalent to holding a benefice, along with its accompanying canonical 
obligations and assured revenues, factors contrary to Ignatius 's ideals of 

Yet decree 19 of General Congregation 34 (GC 34), pointing out 
that nearly 3,200 Jesuits serve in more than two thousand parishes through- 
out the world, affirms that a Jesuit parish ministry is, under certain circum- 
stances, an appropriate way to (1) serve faith, (2) promote justice, and 

^ John W. O'Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University 
Press, 1993), 73f. 

Peter D. Byrne, S.J., last year completed a term as rector and president of St. 
Michael's Institute in Spokane, Wash., and is now engaged in a sabbatical year while 
awaiting a new assignment. Previously he had been pastor at St. Leo Parish in Tacoma 
and St. Joseph Parish in Seattle. He can be reached through the provincial office of the 
Oregon Province, 2222 N. W. Hoyte Street, Portland, OR 97210-3286. 

►I- Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

especially (3) to live with the poor and to be in solidarity with them.^ 
Decree 19 confirms a judgment formulated at a conference at Santa Clara 
University in the summer of 1987: 

Leaders are beginning to realize what we practitioners have always known: 
that the average Catholic gets his or her first and lasting impressions of 
"church" from the parish; that it is there that the first incorporation into 
the Body of Christ takes place; it is there that the daily dramas of life, 
union, death, and resurrection are celebrated; and it is there that struggle, 
failures, and reconciliations occur. In short, they are finally seeing the 
parish as the vital and critical hand that first rocks the ecclesiastical cradle, 
and so its importance can hardly be overestimated.^ 

My purpose in writing this essay is to show that parish ministry, iri 
addition to being personally very challenging and satisfying, fulfills the 
Society's criteria for ministry, namely, the service of faith, the promotion of 
justice, and solidarity with the poor. I especially want to illustrate how these 
three elements become blended and integrated in a Jesuit parish and also to 
suggest other creative possibilities. My primary audience here is Jesuits and 
their religious and lay colleagues currently engaged in Jesuit parishes. I hope 
these words impart encouragement for their ministry and stimuli for creative 
adaptation in their parishes. But I also speak to other Jesuits — scholastics, 
brothers, and ordained priests— who are considering parish ministry for the 
first time or as a change from past work. I hope they find information here 
to help their discernment. I will offer personal stories to illustrate the deeply 
satisfying and creative nature of this ministry and extensively appeal to 
decree 19 and other documents of GC 34 that provide a clear rationale for 
parish ministry. Since this ministry, and especially the role of pastor, re- 
quires preparation and training, I offer some suggestions that, on the basis of 
my experience as a pastor, I am convinced are of vital importance. I con- 
clude with two questions and hazard some answers to each one. 

Other than six years as rector of St Michael's Institute in Spokane, a 
first-studies program associated with Gonzaga University, all of my Jesuit 
ministry involved parish work. During special studies at St. Louis University 
in the late sixties, I lived and worked with Monsignor John Shocklee at St. 
Bridget of Erin, a poor parish in the heart of an African-American neighbor- 
hood in St. Louis. John Shocklee mentored many young Jesuits during their 

2 GC 34, decree 19, "Parish Ministry," Documents of the Thirty-Fourth General 
Congregation of the Society of Jesus (Saint Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1995), §§420f. 
(p. 199). All the citations from GC 34 are taken from this source. 

^ William J. Bausch, The Christian Parish (Mystic, Conn.: XXIII Publications, 
1980), 1. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry *I* 3 

philosophy and theology studies. In the course of my own theology studies 
at Woodstock in New York City and the Jesuit School of Theology in 
Chicago, I worked in diocesan parishes. Then for fifteen years after ordina- 
tion I was co-pastor and pastor in three Jesuit parishes of the Oregon 
Province: St. Leo's in Tacoma, St. Vincent de Paul's (The Downtown 
Chapel) in Portland, Oregon, and St. Joseph's in Seattle. I loved this minis- 
try. In the Oregon Province the promotion of peace and justice often sprang 
to life first in our parishes, where solidarity and friendship with the poor 
was fact and not rhetoric. It demanded more than its share of paperwork, 
headaches, failures, and frustrations; but the work was mostly with people- 
people at their best, their most courageous, their most vulnerable, their most 
honest and tender. It was real. At the end of nearly every day, I had seen 
and heard enough of people's lives to fill my nights and days with awe, 
respect, and gratitude. The faith of individuals and the faith of a whole 
community were at the heart of this ministry. 

I. The Service of Faith 

The mission of any parish is the creation of a covenant community 
centered on the Eucharist and God's Word, dedicated to pastoral 
care of its own members and to the service of the wider neighbor- 
hood, city, and world. Building and nurturing a faith community are the 
first services of faith offered by every parish, including every Jesuit parish, 
rich or poor. Every parish has this in common. Since the fundamental 
sacrament is the Church itself, realized in a specific local community, the 
power of this "sacrament" ensures that other discrete sacramental moments, 
from baptism through anointing, have efficacious power. 

The Service of Faith through a Sacramental Community 

The sense of sacrament in general and the Eucharist in particular 
shapes all Catholic parish life. When a whole community celebrates the 
Eucharist with artistry, the sacramental expression awakens and transforms 
that community. When the assembly does the hard work required of it, and 
Jesuits and other liturgical ministers become "masters of ceremony," the 
whole parish flourishes and is energized for its mission outwards. 

In nearly every Jesuit parish, including St. Joseph's in Seattle and St. 
Leo's in Tacoma, the assemblies, the Jesuits, and their lay and religious 
colleagues have given top priority to liturgy. To attend the Holy Week 
Triduum in most Jesuit parishes is to experience the power of the Catholic 

►I- Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

heritage to stir and evoke religious imagination. Social consciousness and the 
call to justice sharpen as the community lives the ninety days from Ash 
Wednesday and Lent, through Easter, beyond to the missioning of the 
community at Pentecost. 

The Service of Faith through the Ministry of the Word 

My heart rouses 

thinking to bring you news 
of something 
that concerns you 

and concerns many men. Look at 
what passes for the new. 
You will not find it there but in 
despised poems. 
It is difficult 
to get news from poems 

yet men die miserably every day 
for lack of what is found there. 

—William Carlos Williams 

It is not always easy to "get news" from Scripture, from texts of 
another time and another culture; but people are dying or certainly wither- 
ing—spiritually and metaphorically— "for lack of what is found there." Every 
Sunday offers a guaranteed forum for proclaiming and breaking open the 
Word of God, for telling the story of Jesus and continuing to tell it until the 
listeners comprehend it. This is a valuable base for the mission of the 
Society, for those consueta ministeria of the Word articulated in the Formula 
of the Institute. Here is a base for the preaching of justice — consistently, 
persistently, until action ensues. 

The hunger for God's Word and for provocative preaching contin- 
ues to grow in the lives of contemporary Catholics and points to the 
importance of this ministry. Strong preaching in a Eucharistic community is 
what is needed, preaching that appeals to the imaginative consciousness on 
both a personal and a communal level, that both forms and transforms a 
community of faith. Walter Brueggemann, the biblical scholar, is emphatic 
about the importance of preaching when he writes as follows: 

The practice of such poetic imagination is the most subversive, redemptive 
act that a leader of a faith community can undertake. . . . This work of 
poetic alternative in the long run is more crucial than one-on-one pastoral 
care or the careful implementation of institutional goals. This is because the 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry 

work of poetic imagination holds the potential of unleashing a community 
of power and action.'* 

Especially important for evangelization is the preaching at funerals 
and weddings. In the Northwest these two moments are often ecumenical 
events where many unchurched people gather. People are unusually open 
and vulnerable to the religious dimension of life at these times. A well- 
prepared, prayerful homily at these moments often stirs people to ask 
important religious questions, inquire about the Catholic faith, or even 
return to the community after years of absence. 

The Service of Faith and Formation of Lay Ministry 

One summer at St. Leo's, our Jesuit staff participated in a six-week 
seminar on leadership. The Jesuit conducting the seminar asked us, "Are you 
willing to forgo the satisfaction of some personal one-on-one ministry, to 
step back and assume responsibility for the whole, while training others for 
ministry?" He was essentially asking, "Will you take the time to form 
ministers?" "Will you be Jesuits not only /or others but Jesuits with others?" 
This seminar was held in 1973, long before GC 34's decree Cooperation with 
the Laity in Mission. It was a Copernican shift for me, a shift from direct 
ministry to the formation of our lay and religious colleagues. 

One central task the pastor of a Jesuit parish oversees is the forma- 
tion of a discerning and ministering community. This unfolds in a climate of 
trust, respect, freedom, and prayer. The pastor imbues the staff and the 
pastoral council with the skills of discernment, so that the key decisions of 
the community flow from this central Ignatian gift. Then he sees that other 
committees of the parish mature in this method. The long-term benefits of 
this formation in discernment are invaluable. I think Jesuits have a natural 
appreciation for the formation required in the RCIA (Rite of Christian 
Initiation of Adults) program. We know how long it takes to form an 
alternative consciousness in people, that the Christian way is learned over a 
lengthy period of time and requires a blend of the affective, intellectual, 
mythic, and liturgical components. 

Another of the chief leadership roles of the Jesuit pastor and parish 
staffs is to call every member to his or her fundamental baptismal right and 
responsibility to assume an active role in the parish community- and in 
family, professional, and civic life. One key sign of healthy pastoral leader- 
ship is an atmosphere where parishioners come forward to offer their energy, 
ideas, and talents for the mission of the community. 

'^ Walter Brueggemann, Hopeful Imagination (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986), 96. 

6 •^ Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

In nearly every American parish around the United States, in nearly 
every Jesuit parish, an explosion of lay ministries has taken place. This 
development and formation of lay ministers in Jesuit spirituality has impor- 
tant results. For example, the staffs of both St. Leo's and St. Joseph's are 
almost entirely lay, both parishes have lay administrators, and most staff 
members have made the Exercises in Everyday Life and now in turn direct 
others in this retreat. Most staff members make an eight-day directed retreat 
each year. They are well versed in Ignatian spirituality and the practice of 
discernment. This formation is typical of nearly eyery Jesuit parish. 

But there is a serious caveat. The main focus of lay ministry, and 
hence of lay formation, is not primarily to do the ministry of the parish 
community, but to work for the reign of God in their families as well as in 
their social and civic milieus. Tom Sweetser, S.J., observes that "this call for 
volunteers and an emphasis on parish ministry should be secondary to 
stressing holiness in home and workplace. "^ Decree 13 of GC 34 stated that 
Jesuits are to offer "[themselves] in service to the full realization of this 
mission of the laity."^ We need to offer our gifts of spiritual direction to 
those people who can influence public policy, invite them to make the 
Exercises, and provide the liturgical nourishment they need for their service 
and ministry to the world. Sweetser adds: 

Imagine what a parish would look like if, at every Mass, activity, and 
program, the rallying cry was, "You are the grace bearer. Take the Good 
News to those who really need it the most, those in your homes, offices, 
malls, freeways, and airports. Practice the Gospel readings, share a peace 
greeting, extend Eucharist, be church to those you meet. We wiU help you. 
We will listen to what happens. We will accept whomever you bring back 
to our next gathering. We are behind you, but it is in your hands. No one 
else can touch the people you will interact with this day, this week, this 

Except for presiding at the Eucharist and other sacraments, women 
serve in every possible role in many diocesean parishes as well as those 
under the leadership of Jesuits and other religious communities. Women 
preach and preside at Communion services, head finance commissions, chair 
pastoral councils, and play critical roles in the mission and ministry of every 
parish. Patty Repikoff well exemplifies a woman who has served in Jesuit 
parishes and who has been formed in Ignatian spirituality. She graduated 

^ Thomas Sweetzer, "The Parish of the Future," Commonweal, September 13, 
1996, 23. 

^ GC 34, decree 13, "Cooperation with the Laity in Mission," §331. 

^ Sweetser, "Parish of the Future," 23. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry 

from Gonzaga University in Spokane in 1971, then went on to serve as a 
Jesuit lay volunteer in Texas and at St. Leo's for three years. Next she 
became an associate pastor at St. Leo's for nearly twelve years. In 1990 
Archbishop Raymond Hunthausen appointed her parochial minister of St. 
Therese's parish in Seattle. No matter what her official title may be, she is 
the de facto pastor of the parish. Two Jesuits from Seattle University serve 
as sacramental ministers. While all this is good, the role of women in a Jesuit 
parish— and in any Catholic parish— is far more challenging and problematic 
than the general question of lay ministry. The pain, anger, sadness, disgust, 
and bone weariness of women continue to deepen. A Jesuit parish affords a 
crucial forum for listening to women and their experience, for evoking, 
supporting, and nourishing their gifts in the community. 

At the same time we must be very mindful of men in parish 
ministry. A danger is always present that they will lose interest. We are 
exposed to the worst of both worlds: women cannot be ordained and offer 
their many gifts in priestly ministry, while parish staffs become overfemi- 
nized. We could easily become a church mainly of women headed by male 
priests. Pastors should make concerted efforts to invite men to make the 
Exercises, as well as to provide for them other spiritual formation peculiar to 
their needs. Kenneth Woodward, a Catholic layman and religion editor of 
Newsweek, expresses this concern. He notes that many people turn to the 
church after an absence when they have children, that the parish reaches 
adults through their children, and hence "addresses adults as parents. "^ He 
goes on to add this caution: "In short, religion in American life is not only 
privatized; it is also domesticated, identified with the side of life away from 
work, from the civic and the public; away from the side which, rightly or 
wrongly, is identified with the masculine" (ibid.). The times and GC 34 
invite us to apply ourselves to the formation of both women and men. And 
that invitation must include formation for the promotion of justice. 

11. The Promotion of Justice 

Defenseless under the night 
Our world in stupor lies; 
Yet dotted everywhere. 
Ironic points of light 
Flash out wherever the Just 

^ Kenneth L. Woodward, "Gender and Religion— Who's Really Running the 
Show?" Commonweal, November 22, 1996, 10. 

Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

Exchange their messages: 
May /, composed like them 
Of Eros and dusty 
Beleaguered by the same 
Negation and despair. 
Show an affirming flame. 

-W. H. Auden 

GC 32, especially in its decree 4, called upon every Jesuit ministry 
to undertake the promotion of justice. GC 34, in its decree 3, Our Mission 
and Justice, confirmed this thrust, while adding some critical nuances. All my 
experience has confirmed the belief that a Jesuit parish can be an excellent 
base for this mission. In the Oregon Province, parishes have frequently led' 
the way. 

The Promotion of Justice at St. Leo's 

An abundance of parishioners from St. Leo's are involved in direct 
ministry to the poor and in ministry for social justice and structural change. 
They fit Auden's description of ordinary people "beleaguered by negation 
and despair" who add light to neighborhoods "defenseless under the night" 
and to people who often "lie in stupor." St. Leo's houses a health clinic and 
a soup kitchen, has worked with the Archdiocese of Seattle and government 
agencies to remodel its old school building to house the office of Catholic 
Community Services, and has cooperated with other government agencies to 
provide low-income housing in the neighborhood. The parish has responded 
to every social issue in the Tacoma area for years: many parishioners have 
contributed financial support and have committed their time in creative 
abundance. The parish supported and worked for nuclear disarmament, is 
active on behalf of the homeless and street people, and has provided sanctu- 
ary for a family from El Salvador. The connection of faith, as expressed in 
liturgical and sacramental celebration, with the promotion of justice is 
especially strong. 

St. Leo's integrates and blends together in a single fabric the faith- 
justice mission, especially as faith finds expression in weekly celebration of 
the Eucharist, as well as the sacraments of initiation, anointing, and mar- 
riage. The parish community dedicates substantial financial and human 
resources to these two dimensions of their mission. They retrieve ancient 
symbols, weave a new synthesis, and, on occasion, alter the ritual context to 
more emphatically highlight the requirements of justice and peace and the 
demands of Christian discipleship. The baptism I am about to describe, 
while not typical, demonstrates the constant challenge to connect cult to life. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry 

ritual to justice. It does highlight, however, the need to connect ancient 
symbols and rituals to contemporary realities, even at the risk of upsetting 
and offending people. 

The liturgy took place on a Sunday morning in 1978, not at the 
parish church in Tacoma, but thirty miles away outside the perimeter fence 
of the Trident submarine base at Bangor, Washington. As early as 1976 
Archbishop Raymond Hunthausen of Seattle had spoken out against the 
presence of the Trident weapon system and opposed as well the first-strike 
policy of the United States and the moral ambuiguity of the whole arms 
race, calling Bangor the "Auschwitz of Puget Sound." He never told fellow 
Catholics that they had to draw the same practical conclusion that he had; 
rather, he invited all to reflect seriously on the moral implications of the 
whole arms race. So, on the day of the baptism, as pastor of St. Leo parish, I 
had joined the parents, their child, and other parishioners outside the base to 
witness against the Trident. I asked the parents, sponsors, and parishioners 
the ancient questions of renunciation and belief: "Do you renounce Satan 
and all his works? Do you renounce the glamour of evil? Do you believe in 
God, in Jesus Christ?" 

On St. Ignatius Day, three months earlier, nearly a hundred Jesuits 
had gathered at the same fence to reflect and pray on our response to the 
whole arms race in general and the Trident submarine in particular. Pat 
O'Leary, the Oregon Province novice director, asked us to reflect on the 
Two Standards— on one side of the fence was planted the "standard" of Satan 
with his accompanying strategy, on the other side stood the "standard" of 
Jesus with his entirely opposite strategy. Now, three months after the feast 
of Ignatius, we were asking all gathered to renounce the standard of Satan 
and to embrace the standard of the crucified Jesus. 

The day after the baptism, several parishioners and I protested by 
illegally entering the base. Federal marshals quickly arrested us and the next 
day we were arraigned. Several months later we were tried in federal court 
and sentenced to three years of probation. This was just one incident in a 
protracted witness on the part of parishioners against nuclear arms and the 
Trident. For the most part, the parish community supported this step. The 
parish-council president was strongly opposed, however, because he felt we 
were not addressing the more local and less glamorous issue of peace in 
families and personal relationships. We were able to speak about this person- 
ally and in a community forum. Another parishioner, a retired army officer, 
did not understand the action either, but realized my decision came only 
after thought and prayer. He had accompanied me to a Trappist abbey a 
week earlier, where I confirmed the decision to enter the base and be 
arrested. In retrospect I would say a few conditions are necessary before 

10 -^ Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

undertaking this kind of controversial action. First, I would never engage in 
it before I had been part of the parish for several years and pastor for some 
time. You must be a pastor before you can be a prophet. Second, it is 
important to communicate "early and often" to the parish what you are 
intending to do, stressing that your decision is a result of prayer. It is 
important as well that you remain open to critique, that you avoid self- 
righteousness, and finally that you stay connected with those who disagree 
with you. 

The Promotion of Justice and the Example of St. Joseph's 

St. Joseph's in Seattle, similar in many ways to Holy Trinity in 
Georgetown or the Gesu near John Carroll University, is not a poor parish, 
nor is it situated in a poor neighborhood. Nevertheless, there is a strong link 
between the needs of the poor and the multiple resources of the parish. The 
justification for retaining Jesuit parishes like St. Joseph's is this strong link 
between the ministry to the powerful and serving the needs of the poor. For 
example, the parish supports the Martin de Porres Shelter for older homeless 
men on the Seattle waterfront, provides overnight sleeping and shower 
facilities in the parish center for ten homeless men, financially supports a 
house in a nearby neighborhood for a homeless family, offers its former 
convent at a reduced rent as a residence for women in transition, and is the 
site for a weekly Eucharist for the gay and lesbian community. The parish 
supports a program called The Baby Corner that provides food, diapers, 
clothing, and medical help to infants and their mothers throughout the city. 
St. Joseph's also has a special relationship with a Jesuit parish in El Salvador, 
a relationship that warrants a more detailed description. 

St. Joseph's parishioner Molly Carle some time ago asked me if I 
would be part of the first St. Joseph's delegation to our sister parish of San 
Bartolomeo in Arcatao in the province of Chalatenango. For three years, 
starting with a visit to the parish by Cesar Jerez, provincial of Central 
America, we had been in contact with the Jesuits and people of the parish in 
Arcatao. Jon Sobrino, the Jesuit theologian from the University of Central 
America (uca) in San Salvador, had recently been in Seattle and had ad- 
dressed the parish. We were ready to make our first visit. 

El Salvador was edgy and tense in October 1989. Both government 
and guerrilla troops contested Chalatenango Province and fire fights and 
skirmishes were common in the area. The Jesuits all over the country, and 
especially at the UCA, were speaking out strongly for a negotiated settle- 
ment. The first day in the country, the delegation visited the UCA, met with 
Sobrino and Jon Cortina, and stayed with the Jesuit Refugee Service in San 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry 4* 11 

Salvador. Then, on a rainy night, eight of us climbed into a small pickup 
truck, made our way through government check points, and headed for 
Arcatao. Troops stopped us at the last military checkpoint, but then gave us 
permission to proceed. After two days' travel by truck and on foot, we 
arrived in the village of Arcatao. The people extended us a most gracious 
and joyful welcome. We heard their stories, saw the terrible effects of the 
war, met with guerrilla leaders, visited secret hiding places, talked with 
torture victims, celebrated the Eucharist, and went to a village dance. We 
presented the parishioners with gifts, including ten thousand dollars raised 
by the people of St. Joseph's. 

Several weeks after our return, on November 16 I received a phone 
call early in the morning informing me of the deaths of six companions at 
the UCA, along with their cook and her daughter. In the aftermath of the 
murders, people from all over Seattle gathered together for two powerful 
liturgies, one that took place at St. Joseph's and the other in the streets of 
Seattle. Liturgy and social justice became powerful companions, yoked 
together for the deepening of faith and promotion of justice. This was true 
of Jesuit parishes all over the country as well as chapels on our high-school 
and university campuses. 

On Sunday, November 20, 1989, one thousand people gathered at 
St. Joseph's to remember the murders of the six Jesuits, their cook, and her 
daughter. Men, women, and children came forward to venerate the cross, 
while an oboe pierced the air with the theme from The Mission. Jack Morris, 
S.J., spoke powerful and prophetic words that cried out for justice and peace 
in that grieving land. The next day seven hundred people streamed forth in 
silence from that same church carrying a large cross with a corpus. Silently 
we walked through neighborhoods, paused at Seattle University, then at St. 
James's Cathedral, and finally made our way down into the heart of the city. 
In the plaza of the Federal Building, several men raised high the corpus of 
the crucified Jesus. 

More important, though, than these two riveting liturgies is the 
enduring and deepening relationship between the two parishes. Ten delega- 
tions from St. Joseph's have visited St. Bartolomeo's since 1989, two of them 
accompanied by the Jesuits who followed me as pastor. And two Jesuit 
pastors from Arcatao have visited St. Joseph's in turn. One also spoke to the 
Washington State Congressional delegation in the nation's capital. St. Joseph 
school children have made important connections with the school children 
of Arcatao. Parishioners have actively called for the closure of the School of 
the Americas (SOA) at Fort Benning, Ga. Internal documents from the 
Pentagon prove that the SOA was responsible for the training of several 
officers responsible for the deaths of the Jesuits at UCA as well as of many 

12 *h Peter D. Byrne, S.J. 

other innocent Salvadorans. To sum up, this relationship has called St. 
Joseph parishioners to be mindful of a local church in another part of the 
world and made them aware of the oppression caused in part by American 
policy. It has also challenged us to receive the gift of the deep faith of these 
Salvadoran people. It was the poor who evangelized the rest of us. 

The challenge for a parish is to hold three elements in creative 
tension: the requirements of pastoral care, quality worship, and the demands 
of justice. This is the integration that is so important. Walter Brueggemann 
writes that "vitality in ministry comes in helping a people link personal life 
to the places where God is at work in larger contexts. . . . There are no 
personal issues that are not of a piece with the great public issues. To divide 
things up into the prophetic and pastoral is to betray both."^ Most Jesuit 
parishes make these connections very well. 

III. Solidarity with the Poor 

Decree 19 commends parish ministry as an appropriate Jesuit minis- 
try because it "offers a favorable context to live with the poor and 
he in solidarity with them."^^ Not every Jesuit parish is able to 
achieve solidarity with the poor in exactly the same way. So much is 
contingent upon its physical location. A Jesuit parish in a poor neighbor- 
hood has a distinct advantage because the poor both surround and form the 
community. A Jesuit parish in a more affluent neighborhood must be 
creative and imaginative to achieve this most important quality of Jesuit 

Solidarity with the Poor in Two Poor Parishes 

Jean Vanier, founder of L'Arche, has often said that if we build the 
Church on the rich we will exclude the poor. However, if we build the 
Church on the poor, we will exclude no one. Toward the end of his life, 
Paul VI spoke to pilgrims from L'Arche who were in Rome: "[BJecause of 
your sufferings you are closest to the heart of Jesus, and because you are 
closest to the heart of Jesus you are the heart of the Church." The poor are 
the heart of St. Leo's, the foundation, indeed the "cornerstone rejected by 
the builders." They are people with mental illness released from state 
institutions and seeking affordable housing in the adjacent neighborhoods. 

^ Hopeful Imagination, 18. 

1° GO 34, decree 19, §§420f. (emphasis added). 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry ^^ 13 

They are the homeless and street people. Increasingly society deems them all 
disposable and expendable, refuse for urban dumping grounds. But they 
embody the "sacrament of the poor" or, as Mother Teresa once observed, 
the presence of Jesus in "distressing disguise." The parade of characters at St. 
Leo's was, and still is, quite a spectacle. Gerry, impeccably dressed in suit 
and tie, was always getting married to Cyd Charisse. Sunday after Sunday in 
his role as parish usher and greeter, he invited anyone and everyone to the 
wedding the following Saturday. Adeline, a Blackfoot Indian, was mother of 
eight children, four of whom had died under violent circumstances. She 
would pray before the tabernacle and, like Rachel of old, weep so much that 
her blue nylon jacket became drenched with tears. Dan McDonald smoked 
his cigar before the 5:00 P.M. Saturday Mass and asked every week, "Father 
Peter, how's the flock?" After Communion he would pray out very loud, 
"Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on me." 

Jesuits and their colleagues working in poor parishes can list their 
own cast of characters like these, the subjects of poignant, wrenching, 
though often hilarious, stories. Why did I, and so many Jesuits, love parish 
ministry so much? These people and their stories are so real. And ministry 
in a poor parish can afford opportunities for solidarity not always available 
in other Jesuit ministries, even other Jesuit parishes. GC 34 encourages us to 
become true friends with the poor "by frequent contact with these 'friends 
of the Lord' from whom we can often learn about faith." ^^ 

Freddy and Greg 

I wish to say something of my graced friendship with Freddy and 
Greg and with Michael, and explain how all three taught me and many 
others about faith and life. When people asked Dorothy Day how the 
Catholic Worker started, she replied that it was really quite simple. Hungry 
people came to the door of the Catholic Worker House and Dorothy and 
others offered them food. It was that simple. And I would say the same 
thing about how Fred Kobel and Greg Hanon, two men with mental 
handicaps, came to live with David Rothrock and me while we were co- 
pastors of St. Leo the Great in Tacoma. It was all so very simple. David and 
I had been ministering at the parish less than a month when around six 
o'clock one evening during September 1976 it all began. While walking 
home from the parish office, we met them loitering outside our school gym, 
an hour early for an event that was to begin at seven. Fred was fifty-five and 
Greg was twenty-six. Both had mental disabilities. Both had already spent 

^^ GC 34, decree 3, "Our Mission and Justice," §66. 

14 -l- Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

years in state institutions. Now they lived semi-independently several blocks 
from the parish. Neither was a Catholic. 

After introducing ourselves, we asked them if they would like to 
have dinner with us. They readily agreed. And so a can of this and that, a 
few leftovers, and ice cream made up the meal. At seven they were on their 
way. At six o'clock the next evening there was a knock on our door. I 
opened it to find Fred and Greg with large smiles and even larger appetites. 
The knock came again the next night and the night after that as well. Over 
an eight-month period Fred and Greg dined with us four or five nights a 
week, but we had by that time started asking them to help with the dishes. 

Finally, David asked me if I thought God might just be asking us to 
invite Fred and Greg to live with us. We prayed and talked about it, then 
investigated the possibility with their social workers and their families. 
Finally, on St. Ignatius Day, 1977, they moved in with us and have not left 
since. They are two of the original founders of what eventually became 
Takoma L'Arche, an official community of the L'Arche Federation. 

For the next four years we lived together in community. Soon a 
diocesan priest joined us, followed by several lay men and women. All this 
time I was the co-pastor and then pastor of the parish. Fred and Greg 
worked at Goodwill and were integral to the life of the parish. They ushered 
at the Sunday Eucharist, helped with children's liturgies, and touched the 
lives of the parishioners in countless ways. From both of them I learned 
about patience, simple joys, parenting, and juggling community life with the 
demands of the parish. There were times I could hardly believe I was trying 
to reconcile being a pastor of a parish with being "mother and father" to 
two men with mental disabilities. They taught both of us much about faith 
in Jesus, about human anguish, about the human heart's capacity of love. I 
came to appreciate Jean Vanier's insight that the deepest pain handicapped 
persons know is the sense that they are often a disappointment to their 
parents. I also began to learn for myself that the handicapped person has 
wonderful gifts to offer. Living with Fred and Greg made my ministry to 
other people, especially families, far more credible. We had to be for them 
what so many of our parishioners had to be for their children and aging 
parents. And it all happened because Fred and Greg had been hungry and 
kept knocking at our door. It was that simple. 


St. Vincent de Paul Parish, more popularly known as The Down- 
town Chapel, is located in Portland, Oregon, on Sixth and Burnside, the 
collision point between the commercial center and skid row. Burnside 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry •^ 15 

divides the two worlds. Just south of it rises a gleaming forty-story office 
building, home of the largest bank in Oregon. Sleazy bars and the Star 
Theater, home of porno movies, "Foxie Roxie," and other exotic dancers, 
line the north side. 

The Chapel was an old skid-row hotel, remodeled and renovated to 
provide a worship space, a dining room and a meal program for seniors, 
showers and a clothing room for the homeless, and living quarters for the 
staff on the top floor. It was home to an unusual congregation, including the 
well-heeled and the no-heeled, as well as those whose heels were attached to 
unmatched pairs of shoes. We also welcomed smartly groomed women in 
middle-management positions at nearby offices as well as bag women smell- 
ing sour through layers of old clothes. Many a person slept off a drunk 
during a homily while sitting next to an executive who was wondering how 
to hold his shaky marriage together. There was room for all. 

Outbursts from people in the congregation were not uncommon 
during the liturgy. Some of these were funny, a few violent, and many very 
poignant. Often the sound of snoring, or bottles dropping on the floor, or 
the screams of beaten people on the streets drowned out the words of a 
homily or the Eucharistic prayer. The Chapel held a great amount of human 
pain and anguish, and perhaps none more than that of a man I will call 
Michael, who came by several times a day. 

Michael suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and would frequently 
yell out during the Mass or homilies. The most delicate time was at the 
penitential rite. He would think the homilist was accusing him personally of 
wrongdoing and grow agitated and volatile. I often would walk into a 
darkened chapel and hear Michael's cri de coeur, "How long, O Lord, how 

There were bright moments, however, especially if Michael kept on 
his medication and attended to basic needs. He was generous in helping out 
around the place and often would take one of us Jesuits for coffee or lunch. 
He bore both the passion and death of Jesus to a remarkable degree, but he 
also bore an occasional flicker of Easter hope. One Good Friday, Michael 
carried the cross in procession and then held it during the veneration. He 
got all dressed up, shined his shoes, and bore the cross with immense dignity 
and reverence. He certainly had "earned" the right to carry it because he so 
often found himself on it. At the Easter Vigil the next night, I asked him to 
carry the Easter candle. Again, Michael dressed up and buffed his shoes. As 
he held the candle, his face beamed and projected a flicker, no, a strong 
beam of hope. This man, who often groaned the psalms of lament in the 
darkened chapel, knew for a moment the audacious hope of Julian of 
Norwich: "You will have pain and affliction, trouble and strain and doubt. 

16 -h Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

But you shall not be overcome and all shall be well. Yes, all shall be well, 
and all will be well, and you shall see for yourself that all manner of being 
shall be well." 

Worshiping alongside people like Michael, at both the Downtown 
Chapel and St. Leo's, were more educated and higher-income parishioners. 
The wealthy and gifted, the sound in mind and body also came and found 
their places and offered their gifts. They discovered the essence of Mother 
Teresa's prayer that we be found more worthy to serve the poor. They 
discovered the rich faith-life of many poor people. Decree 4 of GC 32 had 
strongly focused on what Jesuits would do for the poor to alleviate their 
suffering, what Jesuits would do to correct the structures of society. It did 
not adequately emphasize mutuality and reciprocity and paid too little 
attention to what the poor could give and teach Jesuits. A short time in a' 
poor parish makes up for that omission. Without romanticizing either the 
poor or poverty, Jesuits soon realize that many who are poor possess a 
stunning faith in Jesus. Many enjoy a rich life of prayer and reflect a 
resiliency because of their hope and confidence in God. They are now the 
ones who often evangelize us. Jesuit parishes, especially at the inner core of 
American cities, may be burdened with seemingly insurmountable problems 
and, to paraphrase Paul in 2 Corinthians, be hemmed in on every side, see 
no way out of difficulties, be hard-pressed for money and other material 
resources; but the faith life of the people is often rich and buoyant. 

Furthermore, a Jesuit parish ministry with and for the poor is often 
the compelling reason for other people, many of them our former students 
or Jesuit Volunteers, to come to a Jesuit parish to celebrate the Eucharist, to 
offer their gifts, to work for social change. At our best, we Jesuits are 
conversant with the poor and the well educated and powerful alike. Not 
only are we able to walk back and forth between each world, but we are 
also able to bring the gifts of one world to the other. As CG 34 reminds us, 
Ignatius and his early companions often "linked the ministry to the powerful 
to the needs of the powerless." Jesuits continue to do so today. Jean Vanier 
is right: when a parish is with and for the poor, it excludes no one. The 
community can welcome all: the table is spacious, there is a place for 
everyone, there is room enough for all. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry 4* 17 

IV. Preparation for and Skills Needed for Ministry 

in a Jesuit Parish 

Contemporary parish ministry requires significant preparation, and 
pastoring requires very specific skills. Our current theological 
training does not address these requirements in any specific way. I 
would like to discuss the preparation of those who may be interested in this 
ministry. I begin my observations about the specific ministry of a pastor 
with a short story. It opens with a question: "How's your heart?" I knew 
the old African American woman was not asking about my aorta or my 
cholesterol count. Her bony finger tapped on my chest; she was asking 
about my heart, all right, or my soul, if you will. I paused, and then 
responded quietly but firmly, "My heart's OK, my heart is OK." So how's 
your heart? A pastor must be able to carry the pain and anguish of his 
people without breaking. While giving a retreat to Anglican priests, Dorothy 
Sayers observed, "Your people will know very quickly what you really 
believe about God and also what you really think about them. "12 Am I 
empathetic? Am I trustworthy? Am I consistent with the Word? Can I be 
vulnerable? Can I admit to a mistake and ask forgiveness? What do I really 
believe? What do I really think about my people? 

Dorothy Day always wanted to stay close to the ordinary Catholic 
in the pew. I encourage all Jesuits— scholastics, brothers, priests— to be part 
of an ordinary parish community and worship there when not presiding at 
the Eucharist elsewhere. If you worship in a parish that initiates new 
members during the Easter Vigil service and that attends to the liturgical 
seasons with care and creativity, you will find that it expands the heart. 

Specific Skills for a Pastor 

Decree 19 calls for the development of particular skills in Jesuits 
considering ministry in a Jesuit parish, especially as a pastor. These skills are 
also appropriate for scholastics doing regency in a Jesuit parish and priests or 
brothers contemplating a change of career. The decree lists the following: 

1. homiletics 

2. liturgy 

3. catechesis 

^^ Dorothy Sayers, quoted by Delores Lekey in a talk entitled, "Toward the 
Partnership of Women and Men in Mission," Origins, October 12, 1996, 419. 

18 -l* Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

4. socio-cultural analysis 

5. social communication and 

6. conflict management 

This constellation of gifts and skills is simply not found in any one mortal! 
The days of the omniversatile performer are long gone. A Jesuit pastor must 
honestly assess his personal gifts, concentrate on two or three areas of need, 
sharpen his skills to confront these problems, and then elicit and support the 
gifts of other ministers and the entire parish. Peter Drucker, who has for 
years pondered management and leadership techniques, provides a few simple 
insights that I have found very helpful. A leader, he insists, should focus on 
the one or two things that he can do. If he does them well, he will greatly 
help the parish and advance the mission of the community. Good leaders 
(pastors) delegate, but they do not delegate the one thing that only they can 
do with excellence, the one thing that will make a difference, the one thing 
that will set standards. What I consider a matter of such importance for a 
pastor and so do not delegate to others is these three areas of parish 
ministry: homiletics/liturgy, socio-cultural analysis, and conflict management 
or religious leadership. 


Although it is important that the community hear homilies from a 
variety of preachers, the pastor plays the key role in preaching and should 
do it frequently. Thus he will provide unity of purpose and direction to the 
community. A Sunday homily requires significant time to prepare. Martin 
Luther King worked an average of fourteen hours on his weekly Sunday 
sermons. What did I find personally helpful and what do I recommend? 
High-school regency is a superb preparation for homiletics. If you can 
communicate with adolescents, you can be a good homilist. Specific 
recommendations? I read and pray Scripture frequently, using different 
translations, and I do this with affection. Immersion in poetry, literature, 
and drama stimulates the imagination, as does watching good plays, quality 
films, and carefully selected television programs. 

I set aside one full day every week for reading, writing, reflecting, 
and thinking. This is a real work day— not a day off! This habit and practice 
is essential if we are to prevent parish ministry from becoming one endless 
conveyor belt of tasks. Imagine yourself as an artisan, a crafter of words and 
images. Writing to "speak" has different requirements than writing to be 
read. To state the obvious, a homily is a spoken event, and the spoken word 
demands concrete and vivid language and repetitions. The more controversial 
a homily, the more it speaks to injustice and oppression, the more artistic it 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry •^ 19 

must become. The homily calling for justice or denouncing social oppression 
must be more evocative than imperative. Scolding and harangue do not 
move or transform people. "If the text is to claim authority it will require 
... an artist to render the text in quite fresh ways, so that the text breaks 
life open among the baptized as it never has before. "^^ 

Any Jesuit contemplating ministry in a Jesuit parish, especially as 
pastor, also needs to make every effort to develop the art of presiding. A 
presider acts as an artisan, a "master of ceremony,'* whom the community 
entrusts with its heritage and expects to be conversant with all the rituals of 
the tradition. From an interior place of prayer, the presider, much like a 
conductor with a musical score or a director with the script of a play, coaxes 
life from the rituals, revealing as much of their power and beauty as pos- 
sible. The presider needs not so much to memorize the rituals as to know 
them "by heart." Moreover, a presider must take time to know the physical 
space of the worship area, find its energy, grow in affection for that space, 
and respect all the sacred moments that have unfolded there through the 
years. He must think through the choreography of a baptism, a wedding, a 
funeral, and then walk through these long before they actually happen. This 
takes time as well as a certain humility and willingness to receive feedback 
and critique. The video camera is not deceived, forgives little, but it is a 
good teacher. 

Socio-Cultural Analysis 

In parish ministry, as in all ministry, we will base our actions upon 
a theory, a particular theology, whether we know it or not. "There are no 
philosophy-free zones into which we can, somehow, escape. . . . We have to 
take care about the quality, the cogency, the truth of the theories we are 
espousing, but especially those we are practicing."^^ GC 34 asks Jesuits to 
become skilled in socio-cultural analysis in every ministry they perform. We 
have to know the social location of ourselves as Jesuits and ministers, and 
the profile of our parishioners, the neighborhood where we minister, the 
city where we dwell. It is important to appreciate the institutional impact of 
the parish on a neighborhood, to know the housing market, the state of 
public schools, not to mention the tremendous influence of sports and 

^^ Walter Brueggemann, Finally Comes the Poet (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 
1989), 9. 

^^ Robert J. Egan, "To Think What We Are Doing: Intellectual Formation for 
Jesuit Mission," from a talk given at St. Michael's Institute in Spokane, Washington, 
November 22, 1996. 

20 ^h Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

entertainment on popular imaginations and the history of different racial 

Moreover, Jesuits might carefully analyze what negative impact our 
mobility and availability have on a parish. A rapid turnover of personnel can 
weaken the sense of stability and continuity of efforts and programs. A new 
pastor can reverse the work and direction a community has pursued, and his 
successor can in turn lead the parish in yet another direction. Reflecting on 
churches, Wendell Berry states that though they may draw their membership 
from the local community, they rarely involve themselves with "issues of 
local economy and local ecology on which community health and integrity 
must depend. "15 f^g goes on to strike a note of caution: 

Nor do the people in charge of these institutions [churches] think of 
themselves as members of communities. They are itinerate, in fact or in 
spirit, as their careers require them to be. These various public servants all 
have tended to impose on the local place and the local people programs, 
purposes, procedures, technologies and values that originated elsewhere. 
Typically, these "services" involve a condescension to and contempt for 
local life that are implicit in all the assumptions— woven into the very 
fabric of the industrial economy. (152f.) 

Conflict Management and Leadership 

Many pastors spend a disproportionate amount of time dealing with 
conflict: parishioners want exceptions made to sacramental policy; choirs 
scorn different musical styles of another group; committees wrangle over 
budgets; groups of every political and ecclesial persuasion suspect each other 
of having too much influence; staff members and Jesuits differ regarding 
authority and responsibility; chancery officials complain that pastors do not 
turn in reports promptly. Every tension in church life around the role of 
women, liturgy, sexual morality— to name just a few of the obvious ones- 
can reach white-hot intensity in the parish. Much conflict revolves around 
who has authority and how it is exercised. As he collaborates with his staff 
and parishioners, a pastor must be candid with them about the canonical 
authority that the pastor holds, state very clearly how each particular 
decision will be made, and define how it will be implemented. To maintain 
sanity, a pastor must cultivate friendships, with both lay people and brother 
Jesuits. And some of these should come from outside the parish! It would 
benefit him to see a spiritual director frequently, exercise regularly and 
vigorously, and have a life outside the demands of the ministry. Finally, I 

'^ Wendell Berry, Sex, Freedom, Economy, and Community: Eight Essays (New 
York: Pantheon Books, 1993), 152. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry *^ 21 

encourage a pastor to have a consulting therapist with whom to talk over all 
the dynamics of transference and countertransference that so easily crop up 
in pastoral ministry. 

In sum, a peculiar type of religious leadership is incumbent on the 
pastor of a parish— more poetic and lyrical than practical. The pastor can 
delegate the important dimensions of management and administration and 
many other functions to qualified lay people. But he should retain and 
emphasize religious leadership. Only the intervention of this artistic and 
poetic sense can detect the presence, purpose, and call of God in people's 
lives, in the community, and in the larger social context. 

V. Two Concluding Questions 

What Distinguishes a Jesuit Parish? 

Before we think we have something dramatically different to offer as 
Jesuits, we would be wise to appreciate and master the fundamentals of 
parish ministry. We cannot forget the nuts and bolts of parish ministry and 
start implementing some special Jesuit focus. If pastoral ministry is 
compassionate, if preaching and liturgies are prayerful and strong, if the 
mission to the poor is central, if care to the weakest member occupies the 
forefront— then this ministry is utterly important to the Church, whether 
the parish is Jesuit or not. Moreover, we would be wise to deeply appreciate 
and honestly value the local diocesan clergy, the mission of the diocese, and 
the goals of the local bishop. I have thought that we should choose as our 
mentors some good diocesan pastors before assuming a pastorate in our own 
parishes. Having said what is somewhat obvious, I offer a few observations. 
There are features Jesuits bring to their ministry: we do possess a certain 
ethos, style, and tone, a way of proceeding, that give a Jesuit parish its 
particular personality and strength. Besides the emphasis on formation 
mentioned earlier, I wish to add the following characteristics. 


Location is almost destiny, hence its importance for a Jesuit parish. 
We do not belong everywhere. "Ignatius loved the great cities" because they 
were the intersection points where the "transformation of the human 
community was taking place, and he wanted Jesuits involved in the 
process. "1^ I propose that a Jesuit parish be fundamentally, though not 

16 GC 34, decree 4, "Our Mission and Culture," §110. 

22 'h Peter D. Byrne, S.J. 

exclusively, urban. I acknowledge that some of the most important parishes 
of the Oregon and Wisconsin Provinces are on Indian reservations, that key 
Maryland and Wisconsin parishes are in rural parts of the Carolinas and the 
Midwest respectively, and that the New Orleans Province staffs a large 
parish in a wealthy Dallas suburb because the bishop knew the Society had 
resources to make it a model parish for the diocese. Notwithstanding all 
that, I would argue that our primary place as Jesuits is in the city, especially 
the inner city. In cities Jesuits fulfill the observation of Paul VI in his 
address to the general congregation in 1974: 

Wherever in the Church, even in the most difficult and extreme fields, in 
the crossroads of ideologies, in the front line of social conflict, there has 
been and there is confrontation between the deepest desires of the human 
person and the perennial message of the Gospel, there also have been, and 
there are, Jesuits.^'' 

An urban parish ensures that one critical institution remains to stabilize and 
strengthen a neighborhood. Many parishes stand alone as the most powerful 
and remarkable multicultural, public communities in a city neighborhood. 
They are our best basis for organizing the community to improve the lot of 
an entire neighborhood. While other parishes can certainly do marvelous 
things in the promotion of faith and justice, a parish in a poor neighborhood 
dramatically increases the possibility for solidarity with the poor and the 
actual chance to live with them and become their friends. 

The Spiritual Exercises and the Practice of Discernment 

A Jesuit parish, whether serving the highly educated or the poor, 
offers a base and forum for the gift of Jesuit spirituality. Two main gifts that 
we offer from our tradition, of course, are the Spiritual Exercises and the 
practices of personal and communal discernment. In the Northwest, the 
Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life has found both its origin and continued 
home at St. Joseph's and St. Leo's. People come from all over the respective 
regions to participate. This ministry also takes place in many other Jesuit 
parishes around the country, such as Holy Name in Camden and Holy 
Trinity in Washington, D.C. The Oregon Province has further adapted this 
ministry by offering a five-day retreat at various parishes. Retreatants come 
for the day, attend a focus talk and a liturgy, and meet with a spiritual 
director. However, they return home each night. A further step would be to 
offer the Exercises in the downtown cores of major cities, where they would 

^'^ Paul VI, Allocution to General Congregation Thirty-Two, quoted in GC 34, 
decree 6, "The Jesuit Priest: Ministerial Priesthood and Jesuit Identity," §169. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry *^ 23 

be more attuned to the schedules of those in the professions of business, law, 
medicine, and the arts. This would make the experience of the Exercises 
available to those who can afford neither the time nor the money to go to 
retreat houses. 

Another critical gift of the Society is discernment, which can be 
employed both in personal decision making and, more generally, on behalf 
of the parish and other groups. The parish milieu allows ministers to make 
an explicit appeal to faith-based language and symbols that help 
tremendously in the task of communal discernment, whether the question at 
hand is to enter into a sister-parish relationship with a Jesuit parish in El 
Salvador, offer sanctuary to refugees from that war-torn land, alter a Mass 
schedule, provide a convent at a reduced rent as a shelter for women in 
transition, or determine parish budgets. 

At St. Joseph's, communal discernment was a powerful antidote to 
the more political model in which those parishioners with a good education 
and excellent verbal skills could predominate. The formation of a pastoral 
council adept in the practice and art of discernment allowed the voice of the 
least vocal or polished member in the community to emerge and be heard. 
Members must learn to attend to the movements of personal prayer, 
overcome a certain "tone deafness" to the voice of the Spirit, and realize that 
the Lord's will is not always manifested in majority vote but sometimes in 
the lone voice that articulates the deeper values of the Gospel. I found that 
skill in discerning parish questions helped people make better decisions in 
their personal life as well. 

Jesuit Companions 

Both at St. Leo's and St. Joseph's, I ministered with two Jesuits who 
also happened to be very good friends and companions in the Society. 
Though initially we gave it little explicit thought, we soon became aware 
how important this relationship was, not only for ourselves but for the rest 
of the parish as well. Our friendship and companionship edified others at 
least as much as anything else we did. People appreciated the affection, the 
laughter, the bond of our Jesuit companionship. They never begrudged our 
taking the same day off and leaving the parish center temporarily priestless. 
Our commitment to each other seemed to give implicit support to spouses 
and motivate them to dedicate time to each other; and it prompted everyone 
to attend to the needs of friendship. I have since reflected that superiors 
hardly ever factor in the reality of friendship when missioning Jesuits to a 
work. We forget so easily that the affection and love of Jesuits as friends and 
companions in the Lord have enormous apostolic power and energy. 

24 -l* Peter D. Byrne, SJ. 

An Apostolic Network 

GC 34 spoke of the emergence of an apostolic network: co-workers, 
former Jesuits, religious men and women, people who find in the Spiritual 
Exercises a "common spirituality and apostolic motivation.''^^ In Seattle 
several faculty members from both Seattle University and Seattle Prep are 
also parishioners at St. Joseph's. Several members of the Board of Trustees 
and many religious women belong to the parish as well. Many parishioners 
are active in the civic life of Seattle. Scores of former Jesuit Volunteers have 
settled in the Seattle region and look for ways to deepen Ignatian 
spirituality. Such a widespread network fosters better communication and 
provides personal and spiritual support for these persons and groups. Jesuits 
involved with their various alumni groups should increasingly invite them 
into the larger mission of the Society and the Church, and not just solicit 
their funds for particular institutions. 

Should the Society Have Parishes as a Ministry? 

Ignatius did not think the Society should have parishes, but the 
reasons he advanced certainly no longer obtain. Benefices and fixed revenues 
are no longer an issue, and a pastorate usually lasts only six to twelve years 
and often far less. But let us consider, for a moment, an argument against 
Jesuits' involving themselves in parishes. One factor that many people 
complain of is the rapid turnover of Jesuits and the effect that has on 
community. Decree 6, "Ministerial Priesthood and Jesuit Identity," might 
add other reasons for the Society not to engage in this ministry: 

Wherever they are, Jesuit priests make their apostolic contribution to 
the life of the local church, while at the same time being faithful to their 
charism and keeping their freedom for mission. At any given moment, the 
Jesuit priest lives in a particular local church, and willingly cooperates with 
the local bishop in the Church's mission. But he recognizes that in every local 
church, it is the particular charism of the diocesan clergy to be the primary 
agents of the bishop's pastoral care; because he is not a diocesan priest, he 
recognizes that he exercises his ministry in complementary ways. As such, a 
Jesuit tries to direct what he does as a priest towards those who are not 
easily reached by the Church's ordinary ministry, i^ 

The parish is the ordinary ministry of the Church. However, many 
people will not avail themselves of this ordinary ministry, so one could 
argue that the Society should not be engaged in parish work. The challenge 

^8 GC 34, decree 13, §355. 
19 GC 34, decrees, §175. 

Jesuits and Parish Ministry *l* 25 

for Jesuits, however, and their partners in parish ministry is not to abandon 
this ministry but to find creative ways from the parish base to reach people 
described in the two following passages from GC 34: 

Since the foundations of the Society, Jesuits have exercised their 
ministry most particularly where needs are greatest, where there are not 
others to minister to these needs, and where the most universal good may 
be found.2o 

This spirit continues to shape what Jesuits do as priests: their ministry 
is particularly directed towards those who have not heard the Gospel, those 
who are at the margins of the Church or society, those who have been 
denied their dignity, those who are voiceless and powerless, those weak in 
faith or alienated from it, those whose values are undermined by 
contemporary culture, those whose needs are greater than they can bear.^i 

Can Jesuit parish ministry meet this challenge? I am confident that the 
parish can be one very good "base" from which to move out and reach these 
people. I am confident my Jesuit companions and their lay and religious 
colleagues in Jesuit parishes will continue to find the equivalent of the 
"public squares and markets, hospitals, and prisons, ships in dock, fortresses, 
playing fields, hospices and hostels" where Ignatius and the early companions 
engaged people through preaching and spiritual conversation.^^ I am confi- 
dent in their creativity, resourcefulness, and imagination to respond to the 
new challenges of the congregation— the needs of God's people to experience 
a deepening of their faith and the cry of the poor for the justice of God. 

To conclude, my personal experience and reflection not only on 
decree 19 but also on other decrees of GC 34 have convinced me of the 
value of the ministry of a Jesuit parish. I would undertake this ministry 
again and strongly encourage other Jesuits to consider it as well. Jesuit 
parishes in the United States are blending and integrating in remarkable and 
very creative ways the service of faith, the promotion of justice, and 
especially solidarity and friendship with the poor. It is these final values of 
friendship and solidarity that were so generously possible for me in parish 
work and are possible for so many others as well. Parish ministry, as I 
mentioned earlier, has afforded me and many other Jesuits the opportunity 
to meet people at their best, their most courageous, their most vulnerable, 
their most honest and tender. It afforded me the grace first to meet and then 
to live with Fred Koble and Greg Hanon, a singular and amazing grace that 
still affects my life. 

^'^ GC 34, decree 6, §168, citing The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, [622]. 

21 GC 34, decree 6, §169. 

22 O'Malley, First Jesuits. Unfortunately, I have lost the page reference for this 


GC 34: Decree Nineteen 

Parish Ministry 

Parish Ministry Today 

420 1. Approximately 3,200 Jesuits labor in two thousand parishes 
throughout the world. In recognizing the important service to the Church 
represented by this investment of manpower, we affirm that "the parish 
apostolate is not contrary to our Constitutions" and add that, under certain 
circumstances, it is an appropriate apostolate for carrying out our mission of 
serving the faith and promoting justice.^ 

421 2. The parish, moreover, offers a favorable context to live with the 
poor and to be in solidarity with them. 

Goals and Characteristics of a Jesuit Parish 

422 3. A parish is Jesuit if, committed to the pastoral goals and policies of 
the local church, it also "participates in the apostolic priorities of the 
Society"^ and in the mission plan of the province, according to "our way of 
proceeding."^ As central to its life, the parish gathers as a community to 
celebrate its joys, struggles, and hopes— in the Word, in the Eucharist, and 
the other sacraments— in well-planned, creative, and inculturated ways. A 
parish becomes an evangelizing community committed to "justice and 
reconciliation" and makes its popular devotions relevant to contemporary 

423 4. A Jesuit parish is energized by Ignatian spirituality, especially 
through the Spiritual Exercises, and by individual and communal discern- 
ment. It tries to provide well-developed programs in catechesis and forma- 
tion for both individuals and families; it offers opportunities for spiritual 

iGC 31, D 27, n. 10 

^ Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, "Creativity in the Pastoral Ministry," to Jesuit pastors 
of South Asia (jepaSA), 1993. 

^ Pedro Arrupe, "Some Guidelines for the Parish Apostolate," AR 17 (1979): 893. 

^ Cf. GC 32, D 4, nn. 17f. 


Decree on Parish Ministry •^ 27 

direction and pastoral counseling. Following the model of the election in the 
Spiritual Exercises, it helps individuals to discern their vocation in life. 

424 5. The parish opens itself progressively to ecumenical and interreli- 
gious dialogue and reaches out to alienated Christians as well as to non- 
believers. It grows into a participative church through such means as basic 
human and ecclesial communities and promotes opportunities for lay 
participation and leadership. 

425 6. In its service of the faith, a Jesuit parish is called upon to develop 
strategies to promote local and global justice by means of both personal 
conversion and structural change. Networking with other Jesuit apostolic 
works as well as other ecclesial and civil organizations, it opposes all forms 
of discrimination and contributes to a genuine culture of solidarity which 
transcends parish boundaries. 

The Jesuit in a Parish 

426 7. A Jesuit is missioned to a parish, Jesuit or otherwise, in order to 
contribute meaningfully to its total life. He should be selected for his lived 
spirituality and pastoral competence. He must be able to interact positively 
with various age groups and should have the necessary skills for working 
collegially with laity and other members of the parish staff. 

427 8. Jesuits in parish ministry should have ongoing contact with other 
Jesuits, diocesan pastors, and other religious ministering in the region. They 
should spend time with them for collective reflection and common action. 

428 9. A Jesuit destined to become a pastor must have special training, 
especially in such skills as homiletics, liturgy, catechesis, sociocultural 
analysis, social communication, and conflict management. In addition, 
opportunities for contact with model parishes and appropriate pastoral- 
training centers must be available to him for ongoing formation. It is also 
recommended that apostolic experiments in parishes be made available to 
Jesuits from the early stages of formation. 

A Mandate to Father General 

429 10. We mandate Father General to evaluate and update our existing 
norms for accepting and withdrawing from parishes and to communicate the 
results to the whole Society.^ Given the many different types of parishes in 
the world, provincials will need to adapt the norms to local situations. 

5Cf. GC31, D27, n. 10. 

A Mission Statement for Parish Ministry 

Parish life stretches to the limit all the hrains, the talents, the spiritu- 
ality and the resourcefulness that the best Jesuit has. And it goes on 7 
days a week, 52 weeks of the year. 

—A Jesuit in Parish Ministry 

What is parish life today in the United States? 

Leaders are beginning to realize what we practitioners have always 
known: that the average Catholic gets his or her first and lasting impres- 
sions of "church" from the parish; that it is there that the first incorpo- 
ration into the Body of Christ takes place; it is there that the daily 
dramas of life, union, death, and resurrection are celebrated; and it is 
there that struggles, failures, and reconciliations occur. In short the 
parish is finally being seen as the vital and critical hand that first rocks 
the ecclesiastical cradle, and so its importance can hardly be overesti- 

Why does the Society of Jesus choose parish ministry as one of its apos- 
tolic works today? Because the parish is where people of all stages of faith 
are gathered and empowered day in and day out for mission in the world. 
Insofar as our Society is mobile, specialized, and diversified in a variety of 
apostolates, it also needs to be engaged in parishes where grassroots faith is 
expressed, nurtured, and formed daily. By being present here we have much 
to give; we have much to receive and learn. 

What does the Society of Jesus have to offer? We have much to give parish 
life, graced as we are by our Ignatian spirituality which offers practical ways 
to foster personal love and companionship with Christ. Our spirituality 
touches not only individual hearts, but also the heart of a parish as a whole. 
Daily, it supports lives of service to the Church, as well as empowers lives of 
mission to establish the Kingdom of God now in the surrounding communi- 
ties of the parish. Our spirituality gives people a way of proceeding in 
apostolic discernment that actually roots communal and personal decisions in 
a mutually professed desire to follow the Person of Christ— his mind, heart, 
and way, in our own time. In the parish, the Society brings the energy of its 
most prized resource, the Spiritual Exercises, to the Body of Christ for daily use. 

How are the Society of Jesus and all of its ministries affected by this 
choice? Basically, the Society is enriched and all its ministries are comple- 

^ William J. Bausch, The Christian Parish (Mystic, Conn.: XXIII Publications, 
1980), 1. 

Mission Statement for Parish Ministry •h 29 

mented. Parish communities and related diocesan contacts offer the Society 
catalytic opportunities for further development, expression, and sharing of 
its charisms. This happens most of all in the lives of the Jesuits in parish 
ministry as they are affected, nurtured, and informed through the mutual 
sharing of their talents, gifts, and faith lives with the people of the local 
church. Such growth affects the body of the Society of Jesus at large. 
Without parishes, the Society of Jesus is like a body without one of its eyes 
and ears and part of its soul. 

Therefore, as a community of priests, brothers, and scholastics, we fully 
embrace working in parish ministry in the United States. We are com- 
mitted to the formation of parish communities fulfilling the mission of 
Christ in the world, especially in places where the need is greater. 

In order to be true to this commitment, we hold the following to be essential 
elements of our Jesuit parish ministries: 

1. Liturgical celebration of the sacraments 

♦ characterized by a spirit of creativity and a willingness to adapt to 
the cultural realities of the communities we serve, e.g., racial, 
ethnic, youth, singles, elderly, middle class, and many more 

♦ characterized by prophetic and spirit-filled preaching which 
consoles and challenges, and which results in deeper understand- 
ing of God's love and the destructive natures of sin and sinful 

♦ supported by paraliturgical devotions which are in the spirit of 
Vatican II, which arise from our charisms and traditions, and 
which nourish the spiritual life of people who find God in them 

2. Evangelization 

♦ by pre-evangelization of those who have not yet heard the Good 
News of Jesus Christ 

♦ by full use of the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults 

♦ by re-evangelization of the middle class through a gospel critique 
of our culture and its addictions 

♦ by traditional means of Catholic schools, adult and youth reli- 
gious education programs, as well as by means of media, creative 

30 ^ Sources 

experiments, small communities, Christian Life Communities, the 
Jesuit Volunteer Corps, and many more means 

3. Collaborative ministry in determining and fulfilling the mission 
of the Church 

♦ with Catholic laity, empowered in our mutually shared baptismal 
call to ministry and leadership 

♦ with diocesan priests, women and men religious, as well as with 
the American bishops and the Pope 

♦ with Jesuits in the local parish apostolate, with Jesuits in the 
province parish apostolate, as well as with Jesuits in other works 
and communities of the Society 

♦ with other Christian faiths, those of other faiths, and all people of 

♦ by associating with and affecting civic services, political structures, 
and the entire temporal sphere 

4. A Preferential Love for the Poor 

♦ characterizing all of our parishes 

♦ sharing directly in the lives of the poor and those at the margins 
of society 

♦ fostering liberation from the addictions of consumerism, sexism, 
racism, rugged individualism, national chauvinism, and other 
cultural evils contrary to the Gospel 

♦ expressing solidarity with the disenfranchised and empowering 
them to change unjust social structures 

5. Manifesting and imparting JESUIT Charisms rooted in the Spiritual 

♦ by fostering the spiritual growth and apostolic commitment of 

the whole parish and of individuals through spiritual direction, all 
forms of the Spiritual Exercises, preaching, the sacrament of 
reconciliation, and so forth 

♦ by use of communal apostolic discernment of decision making 

with the staffs, pastoral councils, and other groups 

Mission Statement for Parish Ministry 4* 31 

♦ by personal and communal life characterized by Ignatian discern- 
ment (action and reflection) and an attitude of availability (gener- 
osity), mobility (progress and growth), universality (multicultural 
consciousness), prophetic witness (the cutting edge), and the 
sense of mission (sent into the world) 

♦ most especially through a personal and corporate spirit of de- 
tachment which encourages and demands that we respond fully 
to our missions and simultaneously work toward responsible 
relinquishment of our apostolic works into the capable hands of 
our collaborators 

Issued by a conference held at 

Santa Clara University 

July 23, 1987 

Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 

1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 

2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 

2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 

3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 

3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 

3/3 Clarke, Jesuit Commitment— Fraternal Covenant? Haughey, Another Perspective on Religious 

Commitment (June 1971)— OUT OF PRINT 
3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 
3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 
4/1 Knight, St. Ignatius' Ideal of Poverty Qan. 1972)— OUT OF PRINT 
4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 
4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 

(Oct. 1972) 
4/5 Futrell, Communal Discernment: Reflections on Experience (Nov. 1972)— OUT OF PRINT 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response Qan.-Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits Qune 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/1-2 Padberg, The General Congregations of the Society of Jesus: A Brief Survey of Their History 

Qan.-Mar. 1974)— OUT OF PRINT 
6/3 Knight, /(ry and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
6/4 Toner, The Deliberation That Started the Jesuits Qune 1974)— OUT OF PRINT 
6/5 Schmitt, The Christ-Experience and Relationship Fostered in the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius 

of Loyola (Oct. 1974)— OUT OF PRINT 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today Qan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles Qune 1975) 
7/4 Clarke, Ignatian Spirituality and Societal Consciousness; Orsy, Faith and Justice: Some 

Reflections (Sept. 1975)— OUT OF PRINT 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence Qan. 1976) 
8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others. On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 

(Mar.-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 

8/5 Buckley, Jesuit Priesthood: Its Meaning and Commitments (Dec. 1976)— OUT OF PRINT 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-73; Others, Reactions and Explanations 

Qan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/3 Harvanek, The Reluctance to Admit Sin (May 1977)— OUT OF PRINT 
9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 
9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist Qan. 1978) 
10/2-3 Barry, Birmingham, Connolly, Fahey, Finn, Gill, Affectivity and Sexuality (Mar.-May 1978)— 

Out of Print 

10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly-Land 

(Sept. 1978) 

10/5 Padberg, Personal Experience and the Spiritual Exercises: The Example of Saint Ignatius (Nov. 

1978)— Out of Print 

11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good Qan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 

11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 

11/4 Buckley, Mssion in Companionship (Sept. 1979)— OUT OF PRINT 

11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 

12/1 Clancy, Veteran Witnesses: Their Experience of Jesuit Life (Jan. 1980)— OUT OF PRINT 

12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 

Communities (Mar. 1980) 

12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 

12/4-5 Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept.-Nov. 


13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/2 Begheyn, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises (Mar. 1981)— OUT OF PRINT 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 

13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 

13/5 O'Brien, The Jesuits and Catholic Higher Education (Nov. 1981)— OUT OF PRINT 

14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (Jan. 1982) 

14/2 Dulles, 5"^. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/3 Robb, Conversion as a Human Experience (May 1982)— OUT OF PRINT 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Charisms (Mar. 


15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nadal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 


16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

16/5 Kinerk, Eliciting Great Desires: Their Place in the Spirituality of the Society of Jesus (Nov. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/4 McDermott, With Him, In Him: Graces of the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. 1986)— OUT OF PRINT 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment Qan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/3 Harmless and Gelpi, Priesthood Today and the Jesuit Vocation (May 1987) 

19/4 Haight, Foundational Issues in Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1987)— OUT OF PRINT 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards Qan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 yicGovQxn, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al.. The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

21/4 Tetlow, The Fundamentum: Creation in the Principle and Foundation (Sept. 1989) 

21/5 Past and Present Seminar yitvohtrs, Jesuits Praying: Personal Reflections (Nov. 1989)— OUT OF 


22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from, a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'SuUivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/1 Clancy, Saint Ignatius as Fund-Raiser Qan. 1993)— OUT OF PRINT 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer (Jan. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" Qan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/2 Veale, Saint Ignatius Speaks about "Ignatian Prayer" (March 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 SizMoii, "As Different As Night and Day" {Stpt. \^^(i) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Wdsnra, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 



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